This volume contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Problems and Recent Methods in Operator Theory, held at the University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, from October 15-16, 2015 and the AMS Special Session on Advances in Operator Theory and Applications, in Memory of James Jamison, held at the University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, from October 17-18, 2015. Operator theory is at the root of several branches of mathematics and offers a broad range of challenging and interesting research problems. It also provides powerful tools for the development of other areas of science including quantum theory, physics and mechanics. Isometries have applications in solid-state physics. Hermitian operators play an integral role in quantum mechanics very much due to their "nice" spectral properties. These powerful connections demonstrate the impact of operator theory in various branches of science. The articles in this volume address recent problems and research advances in operator theory. Highlighted topics include spectral, structural and geometric properties of special types of operators on Banach spaces, with emphasis on isometries, weighted composition operators, multi-circular projections on function spaces, as well as vector valued function spaces and spaces of analytic functions. This volume gives a succinct overview of state-of-the-art techniques from operator theory as well as applications to classical problems and long-standing open questions.