This book provides an economic analysis of various aspects of ‘market quality’, a new concept which emerged in the 21st century, using the tools of ‘oligopoly theory’ and ‘auction theory’ that evolved over the 19th and 20th centuries. In the economics literature the link between the theories of oligopoly and auctions with market quality remains largely unexplored. This book attempts to forge such a link as it brings together relevant theoretical results in the literature on these topics under a unified framework. While the book is mainly theoretical in nature, it also discusses some specific issues related to the problems of market quality in emerging economies like India. Illustrated by carefully chosen examples, this book is highly recommended to readers who seek an in-depth and up-to-date integrated overview of the new field of market quality economics and are interested in some open research problems in this area.